Procedural Guidance for Class Action Settlements
Updated November 1, 2018 and December 5, 2018
NOTE: This updated guidance, first published November 1, 2018, was modified December 5, 2018 to include the following clarification: the first sentence of the guidance has been revised to reflect that even though the guidance is highly recommended, the parties must comply in the first instance with the specific orders of the presiding judge.
Parties submitting class action settlements for preliminary and final approval in the Northern District of California should review and follow these guidelines to the extent they do not conflict with a specific judicial order in an individual case. Failure to address the issues discussed below may result in unnecessary delay or denial of approval. Parties should consider this guidance during settlement negotiations. Parties should also consider the suggested language below when drafting class notices. In cases litigated under the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995, follow the statute and case law requirements that apply to such cases, such as regarding reasonable costs and expenses awards to representative plaintiffs, and this procedural guidance to the extent applicable.
1) INFORMATION ABOUT THE SETTLEMENT—The motion for preliminary approval should state, where applicable:
- a. If a litigation class has not been certified, any differences between the settlement class and the class proposed in the operative complaint and an explanation as to why the differences are appropriate in the instant case.
- b. If a litigation class has been certified, any differences between the settlement class and the class certified and an explanation as to why the differences are appropriate in the instant case.
- c. If a litigation class has not been certified, any differences between the claims to be released and the claims in the operative complaint and an explanation as to why the differences are appropriate in the instant case.
- d. If a litigation class has been certified, any differences between the claims to be released and the claims certified for class treatment and an explanation as to why the differences are appropriate in the instant case.
- e. The anticipated class recovery under the settlement, the potential class recovery if plaintiffs had fully prevailed on each of their claims, and an explanation of the factors bearing on the amount of the compromise.
- f. The proposed allocation plan for the settlement fund.
- g. If there is a claim form, an estimate of the number and/or percentage of class members who are expected to submit a claim in light of the experience of the selected claims administrator and/or counsel from other recent settlements of similar cases, the identity of the examples used for the estimate, and the reason for the selection of those examples.
- h. In light of Ninth Circuit case law disfavoring reversions, whether and under what circumstances money originally designated for class recovery will revert to any defendant, the potential amount or range of amounts of any such reversion, and an explanation as to why a reversion is appropriate in the instant case.
2) SETTLEMENT ADMINISTRATION—In the motion for preliminary approval, the parties should identify the proposed settlement administrator, the settlement administrator selection process, how many settlement administrators submitted proposals, what methods of notice and claims payment were proposed, and the lead class counsel’s firms’ history of engagements with the settlement administrator over the last two years. The parties should also address the anticipated administrative costs, the reasonableness of those costs in relation to the value of the settlement, and who will pay the costs. The court may not approve the amount of the cost award to the settlement administrator until the final approval hearing.
3) NOTICE—The parties should ensure that the class notice is easily understandable, taking into account any special concerns about the education level or language needs of the class members. The notice should include the following information: (1) contact information for class counsel to answer questions; (2) the address for a website, maintained by the claims administrator or class counsel, that has links to the notice, motions for approval and for attorneys' fees and any other important documents in the case; (3) instructions on how to access the case docket via PACER or in person at any of the court’s locations. The notice should state the date of the final approval hearing and clearly state that the date may change without further notice to the class. Class members should be advised to check the settlement website or the Court’s PACER site to confirm that the date has not been changed. The notice distribution plan should be an effective one.
Class counsel should consider the following ways to increase notice to class members: identification of potential class members through third-party data sources; use of social media to provide notice to class members; hiring a marketing specialist; providing a settlement website that estimates claim amounts for each specific class member and updating the website periodically to provide accurate claim amounts based on the number of participating class members; and distributions to class members via direct deposit.
The notice distribution plan should rely on U.S. mail, email, and/or social media as appropriate to achieve the best notice that is practicable under the circumstances, consistent with Federal Rule of Civil Procedure 23(c)(2). If U.S. mail is part of the notice distribution plan, the notice envelope should be designed to enhance the chance that it will be opened.
Below is suggested language for inclusion in class notices:
This notice summarizes the proposed settlement. For the precise terms and conditions of the settlement, please see the settlement agreement available at www.____________.com, by contacting class counsel at _______________, by accessing the Court docket in this case, for a fee, through the Court’s Public Access to Court Electronic Records (PACER) system at https://ecf.cand.uscourts.gov, or by visiting the office of the Clerk of the Court for the United States District Court for the Northern District of California, [insert appropriate Court location here], between 9:00 a.m. and 4:00 p.m., Monday through Friday, excluding Court holidays.
PLEASE DO NOT TELEPHONE THE COURT OR THE COURT CLERK’S OFFICE TO INQUIRE ABOUT THIS SETTLEMENT OR THE CLAIM PROCESS.
4) OPT-OUTS—The notice should instruct class members who wish to opt out of the settlement to send a letter, setting forth their name and information needed to be properly identified and to opt out of the settlement, to the settlement administrator and/or the person or entity designated to receive opt outs. It should require only the information needed to opt out of the settlement and no extraneous information. The notice should clearly advise class members of the deadline, methods to opt out, and the consequences of opting out.
5) OBJECTIONS—Objections must comply with Federal Rule of Civil Procedure 23(e)(5). The notice should instruct class members who wish to object to the settlement to send their written objections only to the court. All objections will be scanned into the electronic case docket and the parties will receive electronic notices of filings. The notice should make clear that the court can only approve or deny the settlement and cannot change the terms of the settlement. The notice should clearly advise class members of the deadline for submission of any objections.
Below is suggested language for inclusion in class notices:
“You can ask the Court to deny approval by filing an objection. You can’t ask the Court to order a different settlement; the Court can only approve or reject the settlement. If the Court denies approval, no settlement payments will be sent out and the lawsuit will continue. If that is what you want to happen, you must object.
Any objection to the proposed settlement must be in writing. If you file a timely written objection, you may, but are not required to, appear at the Final Approval Hearing, either in person or through your own attorney. If you appear through your own attorney, you are responsible for hiring and paying that attorney. All written objections and supporting papers must (a) clearly identify the case name and number ( _________ v. __________, Case Number __________), (b) be submitted to the Court either by mailing them to the Class Action Clerk, United States District Court for the Northern District of California, [insert appropriate Court location here], or by filing them in person at any location of the United States District Court for the Northern District of California, and (c) be filed or postmarked on or before _________________.”
6) ATTORNEYS’ FEES—The court will not approve a request for attorneys’ fees until the final approval hearing, but class counsel should include information about the fees they intend to request and their lodestar calculation in the motion for preliminary approval. In a common fund case, the parties should include information about the relationship among the amount of the award, the amount of the common fund, and counsel’s lodestar calculation. To the extent counsel base their fee request on having obtained injunctive relief and/or other non-monetary relief for the class, counsel should discuss the benefit conferred on the class. Counsel’s lodestar calculation should include the total number of hours billed to date and the requested multiplier, if any. Additionally, counsel should state whether and in what amounts they seek payment of costs and expenses, including expert fees, in addition to attorneys’ fees.
7) INCENTIVE AWARDS—Judges in this district have different perspectives on extra payments to named plaintiffs or class representatives that are not made available to other class members. Counsel seeking approval of incentive awards should consult relevant prior orders by the judge reviewing the request. The court will not approve a request for incentive awards until the final approval hearing, but the parties should include information about the incentive awards they intend to request as well as the evidence supporting the awards in the motion for preliminary approval. The parties should ensure that neither the size nor any conditions placed on the incentive awards undermine the adequacy of the named plaintiffs or class representatives. In general, unused funds allocated to incentive awards should be distributed to the class pro rata or awarded to cy pres recipients.
8) CY PRES AWARDEES—If the settlement contemplates a cy pres award, the parties should identify their chosen cy pres recipients, if any, and how those recipients are related to the subject matter of the lawsuit and the class members. The parties should also identify any relationship they or their counsel have with the proposed cy pres recipients. In general, unused funds allocated to attorneys’ fees, incentive awards, settlement administration fees and payments to class members should be distributed to the class pro rata or awarded to cy pres recipients.
9) TIMELINE—The parties should ensure that class members have at least thirty-five days to opt out or object to the settlement and the motion for attorney’s fees and costs.
10) CLASS ACTION FAIRNESS ACT (CAFA)—The parties should address whether CAFA notice is required and, if so, when it will be given. In addition the parties should address substantive compliance with CAFA. For example, if the settlement includes coupons, the parties should explain how the settlement complies with 28 U.S.C. § 1712.
11) PAST DISTRIBUTIONS—Lead class counsel should provide the following information for at least one of their past comparable class settlements (i.e. settlements involving the same or similar clients, claims, and/or issues):
- a. The total settlement fund, the total number of class members, the total number of class members to whom notice was sent, the method(s) of notice, the number and percentage of claim forms submitted, the average recovery per class member or claimant, the amounts distributed to each cy pres recipient, the administrative costs, and the attorneys’ fees and costs.
- b. In addition to the above information, where class members are entitled to non-monetary relief, such as discount coupons or debit cards or similar instruments, the number of class members availing themselves of such relief and the aggregate value redeemed by the class members and/or by any assignees or transferees of the class members’ interests. Where injunctive and/or other non-monetary relief has been obtained, discuss the benefit conferred on the class.
Counsel should summarize this information in easy-to-read charts that allow for quick comparisons with other cases.
12) ELECTRONIC VERSIONS—Electronic versions (Microsoft Word or WordPerfect) of all proposed orders and notices should be submitted to the presiding judge’s Proposed Order (PO) email address when filed. Most judges in this district use Microsoft Word, but counsel should check with the individual judge’s Courtroom Deputy.
1) CLASS MEMBERS’ RESPONSE—The motion for final approval briefing should include information about the number of undeliverable class notices and claim packets, the number of class members who submitted valid claims, the number of class members who elected to opt out of the class, and the number of class members who objected to or commented on the settlement. In addition, the motion for final approval should respond to any objections.
2) ATTORNEYS’ FEES—All requests for approval of attorneys’ fees must include detailed lodestar information, even if the requested amount is based on a percentage of the settlement fund. Declarations of class counsel as to the number of hours spent on various categories of activities related to the action by each biller, together with hourly billing rate information may be sufficient, provided that the declarations are adequately detailed. Counsel should be prepared to submit copies of billing records themselves at the court’s order.
Regardless of when they are filed, requests for attorneys’ fees must be noticed for the same date as the final approval hearing. If the plaintiffs choose to file two separate motions, they should not repeat the case history and background facts in both motions. The motion for attorneys’ fees should refer to the history and facts set out in the motion for final approval.
3) INCENTIVE AWARDS—All requests for incentive awards must be supported by evidence of the proposed awardees’ involvement in the case and other justifications for the awards.
4) ELECTRONIC VERSIONS—Electronic versions (Microsoft Word or Word Perfect) of all proposed orders and judgments should be submitted to the presiding judge’s Proposed Order (PO) email address at the time they are filed.
1) Within 21 days after the distribution of the settlement funds and payment of attorneys’ fees, the parties should file a Post-Distribution Accounting, which provides the following information:
- a. The total settlement fund, the total number of class members, the total number of class members to whom notice was sent and not returned as undeliverable, the number and percentage of claim forms submitted, the number and percentage of opt-outs, the number and percentage of objections, the average and median recovery per claimant, the largest and smallest amounts paid to class members, the method(s) of notice and the method(s) of payment to class members, the number and value of checks not cashed, the amounts distributed to each cy pres recipient, the administrative costs, the attorneys’ fees and costs, the attorneys’ fees in terms of percentage of the settlement fund, and the multiplier, if any.
- b. In addition to the above information, where class members are entitled to non-monetary relief, such as discount coupons, debit cards, or similar instruments, the number of class members availing themselves of such relief and the aggregate value redeemed by the class members and/or by any assignees or transferees of the class members’ interests. Where injunctive and/or other non-monetary relief has been obtained, discuss the benefit conferred on the class.
Counsel should summarize this information in an easy-to-read chart that allows for quick comparisons with other cases.
2) Within 21 days after the distribution of the settlement funds and award of attorneys’ fees, the parties should post the Post-Distribution Accounting, including the easy-to-read chart, on the settlement website.
3) The Court may hold a hearing following submission of the parties’ Post-Distribution Accounting.